‘Bunker’- A safe haven for people in conflict zone areas; What is a bunker, why it is used, explained

As the world is reeling from the invasion of Russia in Ukraine’s land, Russia continues to bombard the region of Kyiv, Kharkiv, and the rest of parts of eastern Ukraine. Amid the crisis, thousands and millions have so far fled the Ukraine land and sought refugee in countries like Romania, Poland, and Hungary. As the tensions and conflicts emerge in Kyiv, Kharkiv cities, many of the residents went into the ‘Bunker’ where they hope they would be safe. 

What is a Bunker

To escape from the dreadful missile attacks thrown by the Russian forces, many are turning to the shelter called ‘bunkers’.  We have been listening to the news of these unrevealed shelters when an invasion or bombardment occurs. A total of 50 people can easily reside in these bunkers.

A bunker is a defensive military fort designed to protect people and valued materials from falling bombs, artillery, or other attacks. Unlike blockhouses which are mostly above ground,  bunkers are almost always underground. These bunkers are extensively used during world wars and the cold war. Bunkers can also be used as protection from tornadoes.

Questions regarding the structure and the need to build the burners have arisen and so far many are not aware of these tunnel shelters. Trench bunkers are small concrete structures, partly dug into the ground. Many artillery installations, especially coastal artillery, have historically been protected by extensive bunker systems. Typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, and sometimes living quarters. When a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the normal location is a reinforced below-ground bathroom with fiber-reinforced plastic shells. 

Each bunker is built depending on the geographical structure of the location. The time, when the information regarding an invasion or attack is received, then the authorities will switch on the siren so that the residents can enter into the tunnel to make themselves safe from attacks. Most importantly, each country builds a bunker in a separate way and the structures will be different from each other. In bunkers inhabited for prolonged periods, large amounts of ventilation or air conditioning must be provided. Bunkers can be destroyed with powerful explosives and bunker-busting warheads. 

Bunkers deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuries to people sheltering in the bunker. While frame buildings collapse from as little as 3 psi (0.2 bar) of overpressure, bunkers are regularly constructed to survive several hundred psi (over 10 bar). This substantially decreases the likelihood that a bomb (other than a bunker buster) can harm the structure.

Types of Bunkers

There are a wide variety of bunkers available in different places in the world. Trench bunker- a small concrete structure, partly dug into the ground, which is usually a part of a trench system. Artillery-  historically been protected by extensive bunker systems. Industrial and personal bunkers are also used as a residence during a strong attack or conflict. 

The ten-foot-low ground bunker has steel doors, steel beds, and thick wood-made hitches in the underground. However, the bunker provides only the electricity needed to survive for the residence, where food and other utensils will not be available in these bunkers. This is the same case with Ukraine also as more and more people suffer during the Russian invasion as they are not having enough food because they were kept inside the bunker. 

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How to get people into the bunker

In each country or location of war threat, people will be informed about their respective hiding place called bunkers via the Telegram mobile application. However, things will not go smoothly if the internet facility is disrupted in a particular region. Both in and out only has one and only one door, which is a limitation of these bunkers.  

At present, it is an emergency situation in Ukraine. These bunkers are now getting their focus as many rushes to the bunker to have a safe place to reside without being thrown into the conflict. 

The Soviet Union maintained huge bunkers and a number of facilities were constructed in China, such as Beijing’s Underground City and Underground Project 131 in Hubei, in Albania, Enver Hoxha dotted the country with hundreds of thousands of bunkers. In the United States, the Presidential Emergency Operations Center underneath the East Wing of the White House serves as a secure shelter and communications center for the President of the United States in case of an emergency, such as the civil unrest that prompted President Donald Trump to move to the bunker in May 2020.